|Turkey Red Dyeing in Blackley
The Delaunay Dyeworks
Turkey Red in Blackley: A Chapter in the History of Dyeing
By (The late) W.H. Cliffe(1)
Blackley(2), though only four miles from the centre of Manchester, was, until towards the end of the last century, a curiously remote and isolated village community.
Today it is a northern suburb—until quite recently retaining many aspects of village life—and the headquarters of ICI Organics (formerly Dyestuffs) Division. The
place has a long involvement with the dyeing trade.The visitor to Hexagon House, arriving from the city, will probably approach his goal along Delaunays Road. The
last few yards of his journey will be along Hulton Brow(3), still known locally as Barrel Brow; the name has nothing to do with barrels, but is a corruption of Borelle.
The almost forgotten families of Borelle and Delaunay are the principal concern of this paper.
Among the natural dyestuffs available to the dyers of the eighteenth century, madder root held pride of place both for fastness and versatility. According to the
mordant used, a whole range of shades could be produced on cotton, from pink through purple and brown to nearly black. But there was one shade, the most
valuable of them all, a brilliant and solid fiery red, which could only be dyed in India and the Near East. British and French dyers could not imitate it, and it was so
much sought after that cotton yarn would even be sent to the Levant for dyeing, and re-imported. The colour was known as Turkey Red, or sometimes Adrianople Red.
The process was not exactly secret; but its practitioners lived far away, and its complexity made it difficult to copy. There were between 10 and 20 separate treatments
of the cotton, some of them probably unnecessary, since the actual number varied from dyer to dyer. They included steeping in vats containing, among other exotic
ingredients, the digestive juices of animals; but the key to the process was the employment of an oily or fatty substance, usually buffalo milk in India or olive oil in the
Naturally there were many attempts to imitate Turkey Red in the West, but even when the "secret" was known it was hard to get reproducible results, and harder still
to realize the expected profits. In Britain the pioneer seems to have been John Wilson of Ainsworth near Bury, in the 1750s. According to his own account, written
"This valuable Colour cost me several Hundred Pounds. In the year 1753,I sent a young Man to Turkey, on Purpose to learn to dye it. He had lived with a Mr. Richard
Dobs, a Merchant in Smyrna, some Time before, and had learned the Language of those Greeks who dye it; and by Mr. Dobs's Interest, got Admittance into their Dye-
Houses, and was instructed; and on his Return, brought the true Method, and with him a many Bales of the best Madder Root... He executed the Business I sent him
about and I rewarded him for his Trouble; but when I had got it, to my great Disappointment it would not suit for my Purpose, that is for Cotton Velvets; nor any other
sort of Piece Work I then made. The Tediousness of so many Operations, and the Exactness required every Time rendered it of no more Value to me than the Madder
red . . . which is so easily dyed, whereas the Turkey red requires 12 or 13 Operations in repeated Steepings, Dryings, Washings and Dyeing . . ."
As this quotation indicates, Wilson was concerned with piece dyeing, which happens to be more dfficult than yarn dyeing in the Turkey Red process. The Society of
Arts gave him £50, but reported that his dyeing lacked fastness compared with the imported article(5). At all events, by his own admission, Wilson soon ceased to
work the process, and little more was heard of it in Britain for about thirty years(6). The next known attempt to import the know-how directly from the Near East was by
the fustian-maker Charles Taylor of Manchester, as evidenced by the following advertisement(7).
"THEOKARY, Greek Turkey Red Dyer, WHO has worked with Messrs. Taylor and Maxwell, for three years, has now finished his Engagement and is going abroad. If any
Person has any Demands upon him, they are hereby desired to call upon him at The Gibraltar Tavern, where he will give proper Satisfaction. His stay at Manchester
will be near Three Weeks".
However, such evidence as there is—it is mostly negative, such as the notable absence of advertisements by Taylor and Maxwell for Turkey Red dyed yarn—points to
Theokary being no more successful than John Wilson's unnamed adviser. At about the same time as he began his engagement, a profitable commercial operation was
being established in Blackley by immigrants from Rouen.
A littler earlier than Wilson's attempt, Turkey Red was being introduced into France. In 1746, dyeing began at Aubenas in the south-west, with the help of "Greeks"
from Marseilles, and a year these, and a few other ventures in the 1750s, seem to have fared better than Wilson, though none was a complete success. Profitable
operation only started when, in 1776, two Paris merchants, Pouce and Archalat, with government assistance, hired a number of Greek dyers directly from Adrianople.
These people set up a little colony around the existing dyehouse at Darnetal, and from this centre Turkey Red became firmly established in the Rouen area(8). The
importance of personal knowledge of the process is emphasized by the fact that it was published in French by Goudard in 1765 and by Le Pileur d' Apligny in 1776, but
its practice still remained restricted.
In the middle 1780s, perhaps because of some temporary recession in trade, a number of French dyers, mostly from Normandy, emigrated to England. According to a
fact-finding commission from the Normandy Chamber of Commerce, visiting Manchester in 1786, about twenty of these dyers had settled there(9). The authors of the
report, MM Rabasse and Hurard, remarked "Manchester has not yet been successful, as we have, in obtaining the fine Indian scarlet dye on cotton (i.e. Turkey Red,
in French rouge des Indes), but ... we may rest assured that before a year is out this fine rich colour will be known throughout England". Their prediction was almost
The best known of these immigrants was one Pierre Jacques Papillon, a Rouen dyer, who on 21st February 1785 wrote to Mr. Philips, a prominent member of the
Manchester textile community. He followed the letter with a personal visit, using in both cases (for reasons best known to himself) the name Cigale (grasshopper)
instead of Papillon (butterfly). But although he satisfied Philips of his ability to carry out Turkey Red dyeing, he received no encouragement, since (though he did not
know it) the Manchester Committee of Commerce was already in negotiation with Borelle. He went off to the firm of Macintosh and Dale in Glasgow to become the first
successful Turkey Red dyer in Britain—and so out of our story(10).
We have no account of Louis Borelle based on personal knowedge, but from the records he seems to have been a model of patience and determination in face of
delays and frustrations which would have made a lesser man give up(11). He came to England towards the end of 1781 (probably, though not certainly, from Rouen)
"to make proposals for disclosing to the Public his Method of dyeing the Turkey Red". His first step was to approach William Morton Pitt, M.P., with whom he seems to
have been acquainted. But Mr. Pitt was abroad, and Borelle had to wait for his return.In the spring of 1782, a Mr. Crusaz (probably his agent) wrote to Mr. Pitt,
enclosing samples of cotton dyed with Turkey Red. Mr. Pitt did nothing; Crusaz wrote to him again in the autumn of 1783. This time Mr. Pitt was ill, and about to go
abroad for his health—but before he went, he entrusted the matter to Sir Thomas Egerton, one of the Members for Lancashire. Nothing was done in
Parliament because of its approaching dissolution, but Sir Thomas did at least bring Borelle's proposals to the notice of the Manchester Committee of Commerce.
One of the committeemembers, James Touchet, was very interested, and at his urging, the secretary was instructed on 29th January 1784 to write to Borelle's agent.
This the secretary unaccountably neglected to do, but Crusaz himself got in touch with the committee in the following June. The chairman, Mr. Philips, then asked "for
every information which was necessary to justify their Recommendation of the Dye to the Lords of the Treasury". It was not until the winter of 1784-5 that Louis
Borelle came to Manchester, accompanied by his partner, Abraham Henri Borelle (probably, though not certainly, his brother).
Their first dyeings were shown to the committee on 11th February 1785 and the partners "afterwards attended the said Committee, and went through every Operation
of preparing and dyeing cotton of the above colour, both in the hank and the piece(12), and explained to the said Committee the nature of the whole process,
showing the Committee every ingredient that was used". With commendable caution, some members of the committee then repeated the process without the
assistance of the Borelles, using materials supplied by Mr. Philips. There were then prolonged exposure tests of the dyed cotton; and when the committee met on
25th May "being fully satisfied of the Permanency of the Dye, and the great use the discovery thereof would be to the Public, they did, on the 26th of May, sign a
Memorial stating the same to the Lords of the Treasury...".
More months went by; how the Borelles were supporting themselves during this time we do not know. It was not until 3rd March 1786 that the Chancellor of
theExchequer presented a petition to the House on their behalf, and referred it to a committee. Finally, on 7th June 1786, the committee recommended "that a Sum
not exceeding Two Thousand Five Hundred Pounds be granted to his Majesty, to be paid to Louis Borelle and Abraham Henry Borelle, upon a proper Discovery to be
made by them, for the Use of the Public, of their Method of dyeing the Colour called Turkey Red upon Cotton in Hanks and in the Piece"(13).
It is not clear exactly how the Borelles made their "proper Discovery" to die public—possibly through the Worshipful Company of Dyers, as happened in at least one
other case. There are, however, two pieces of evidence that the process was published (apart from the unlikelihood of the Government paying out if this were not
the case). One is an advertisement by "a considerable House" in Manchester for a person capable of dyeing "Turkey Red from Mr. Burrell's [sic] Specification”(14).
The other is an addendum or correction to the process, presumably published by the Borelles(15), ”A Caution to all concerned in dyeing Turkey Red. It is necessary
that the Barillar Liquor be kept from the Frost, for which purpose it is recommended that the Place where the Solution is made be adjoining to the Stove, by which
means sufficient Warmth is obtained without any additional Fire. This Circumstance was overlooked in the Receipt given in at the Treasury".
By accepting Parliament's premium of £2,500, the Borelle partners were of course not precluded from attempting to establish themselves as dyers on their own
account. They could use the premium as their capital, and the only competition they had to meet at first would be from Macintosh and Dale in Glasgow. Their
advertisement appeared on 28th October 1788(16):
It is implied that only one of the Borelle partners was established in Blackley, and this seems to be borne out by directory entries for 1794, 1797, 1800 and 1802, which
list Abraham Henry Borl [sic] "turkey-red dyer, Crumpsall" with an address to meet customers at the Dog and Partridge, Market-street-lane. (The variation between
Blackley and Crumpsall is probably not significant; the dyehouse was perhaps on or near the boundary between the two parishes). However, Louis appears again in a
petition to Parliament in 1796, together with Abraham Henry and an otherwise unknown Henry Borelle, praying leave to bring in a Bill for their naturalization. This went
through without event, and on 23rd December of that year three members of the Borelle family became British subjects(17).
In 1804, Abraham Henry Borelle retired, and his premises were advertised for sale in the Manchester papers(18):
"Extensive Dye-Works at Blakely TO BE SOLD BY PRIVATE TREATY with immediate possession. ALL those extensive and truly eligible LEASEHOLD PREMISES situated
at Blakely, near Manchester, for many years occupied as the DYE-WORKS (in the Turkey Red line) of Mr. Borel, who is retiring from business; together with all
FIXTURES and UTENSILS requisite for carrying on the DYEING TRADE on an extensive scale; the whole of which being in excellent condition, and the buildings in a
substantial state of repair, the works may be immediately recommenced at a very moderate expence... The above premises are altogether in a more complete
situation for carrying on an extensive trade than that of any other in Lancashire, being crescented by a powerful stream of water, which, as there are no other works
of a similar kind above these, is never liable to the smallest interruption. The premises are held by lease, of which a term of ten years is yet unexpired. MR. BOREL,
the present occupier, will cheerfully render every necessary information and instruction to a purchaser. The whole may be viewed at pleasure, and particulars had on
The name of Borelle (with its many variants) is not found in any later directories. Tradition has it (19) that the works came into the hands of the Delaunay family, to
whom we must now turn.
At least two oral accounts of the origin of the Delaunays are current in Blackley to this day, and have occasionally appeared in print. One is that they were Huguenots,
fleeing from religious persecution; another makes them the exiled family of die Marquis de Launay, Governor of the Bastille, who was killed by the Paris mob on the
famous Quatorze Juillet of 1789. There is no word of truth in either story. The Delaunays were Catholics; there is no evidence of any connection with the nobility, and
diey arrived in Blackley at least as early as June 1788, or more than a year before the fall of the Bastille. The family came, in fact, from Rouen, and their head. Angel
Raphael Louis Delaunay, then aged 35, was probably a master dyer. He brought with him his wife, Dorothee Victoire Genevieve, aged 31, and their two infant children,
Louis Barthelemy (Bardtholomew) and Eulalie Pelagie. He was thus later on the scene than Borelle, but he did not have the vexing delays of trying to sell his process;
evidently he had capital, and was able to establish himself straight away. His advertisement appeared some four months earlier than Borelle's so it is
probable that, by this short margin, he was the first successful Turkey Red dyer in England (as distinct from Scotland).
Delaunay was at first in partnership with Charles Payant, a Frenchman (perhaps also from Rouen) who had been in Manchester since 1777, earning his living by
teaching French and Italian. Their advertisement ran as follows(20):
The connection with Payant did not last long. By the end of the next year he was back to teaching(21):
"FRENCH AND ITALIAN LANGUAGES. CHARLES PAYANT, Ridge Field, Manchester, RETURNS his most sincere Acknowledgments to his Friends in particular, and the
Public at large, for the many Favours conferred on him during the course of twelve Years—Respectfully informs them, he has entirely relinquished the Dyeing
Business, means to devote his Time to teaching the Languages, and giving Commercial Instructions, he having been formerly a Merchant—Wishes to observe, the
few Hours he employed in the Dyeing Concern, never engaged him a Moment from due attendance to his Schools, though it has been artfully advanced to the
contrary—Those who honour him with their Patronage, may depend, he always will make his peculiar Study to deserve it, by constant Assiduity to the Improvement of
the Pupils, who shall be trusted to his Care . . ."
What differences there had been between Delaunay and Payant, we can only guess; but Delaunay found it prudent to insert a counter-advertisement(22):
"TURKEY RED and other Colours. Mr. DELAUNAY, of Crumpsall, takes this Opportunity of acquainting the Public (notwithstanding idle Reports which have been
advanced, since his Separation of Partnership with Mr. Payant, to the contrary) that he has continued, and does continue, to dye TURKEY RED, and other fine
COLOURS, as usual, Informs Manufacturers, that his Warehouse is at Mr. David Law's, Cateaton-Street, Manchester, where a Person attends take in Cotton, and give
every Information required. Flatters himself he shall be able to give Satisfaction to those I who please to honour him with their Commands. A. DELAUNAY attends
himself as above regularly every Thursday and Saturday, from twelve to four o'clock."
Delaunay's advertisements both describe his dyehouse as being in Crumpsall, though the directory for 1788 gives his address as Blackley. Although, as mentioned
above, there was a certain lack of precision about locations near the parish boundary, it seems likely that at first the dyehouse was on the Crumpsall side of the little
River Irk, and the dwelling house on the other. There was evidently a move in 1794 (23):
"A. DELAUNAY—TURKEY RED DYER. Respectfully gives Notice to his Friends and the Public, that next May his HOUSE and DYE-HOUSE will be in BLAKELEY".
From the bankruptcy proceedings (see later) it is known that the family lived in Thames House, Blackley, but neither this nor the dyehouse is marked on any known
map. It is also known that a considerable amount of farmland was at one time owned by the Delaunays, of which the only name still identifiable is Pike Fold. At this
period many small manufacturers, both French and British, still kept "one foot on the land"; there was reluctance to break entirely with an older way of life, and some
degree of insurance against failure in business.
However, after 20 years of apparently successful operation, Angel Delaunay was declared bankrupt in 1808. No particular reason for this is known, though the
economic climate towards the end of the Napoleonic Wars made things difficult for many small businessmen. In partial satisfaction of his debts, he had to submit to a
sale of his possessions, the notice of sale appearing on 26th April 1808. Since there was then no limited liability, everything had to go, down to household furniture
such as "sopha and covers". The farming stock "of the said Bankrupt" was listed as "five cows in calf, one calf, three horses, two caravans, two carts six inch wheels,
iron arms, one plough, two pairs of harrows, one market cart, geers for four horses, about four tons of excellent hay, quantity of straw and dung, a few loads of good
potatoes, and sundry other articles". Of more interest is the list of "Dying Utensils ... a valuable assortment of copper pans of various sizes, twelve lead vats, six
large drying stoves, horse wheel and geering, madder mill, chopping machine for madder roots, a large number of chemical and dyeing tubs, sundry wringing
posts, a quantity of lead pipes and cocks, sundry piece barrows and drying racks ..."
Evidently this latter material was not sold, for it was advertised again in different terms on 7th June: "copper pans of various sizes, lead and iron vats, lead and wood
cisterns, a large quantity of chymical and working tubs, two large stove pots and pipes, sundry drying rails and yam poles, one madder mill, horse wheel and geering,
one manganesse machine, wringing posts and hooks, two wood sheds, sundry drains, sieves, stillages, scopes, buckets, etc."
Somehow, Angel Delaunay must have managed to pay off most of his debts. The Commissioners of Bankruptcy met twice to make dividends of the Delaunay estate
(24); and his Will, dated 30th December 1810(25), gives the impression of a man with substantial possessions and a thriving business. The Will was evidently made
during his last illness, for he died on 14th January 1811, aged 58.
Besides the two children already mentioned, born in Rouen, Angel Delaunay had four more, born later; two sons, George William (1795-1833) and Michael (1803-1863),
and two daughters Dorothy Frances and Adelaide (dates unknown). One-third of all the property was bequeathed to the eldest son, Louis Barthelemy, together with a
direction "that the trade of dyer ... be continued and carried on by my son Louis Barthelemy for his own benefit according to the advantages which the share
bequeathed already to him is capable of affording".
Some time before their father's death, two of the Delaunay daughters opened a school, no doubt in order to ease the straightened family circumstances. The notices
of its opening have not been found, but the following advertisement appeared at the end of 1810(36):
"Blackley Board School. THREE MILES DISTANT FROM MANCHESTER. MISS DELAUNAY. A NATIVE of France(27), presents her acknowledgments to her Friends and the
Public, for the encouragement with which she has been favoured since her commencement; she begs leave to inform them, that her School will re-open on Monday
January 21, 1811.
Board of tuition, with the English and French Languages,
Needlework, etc., 28 Guineas per annum.
Without the French Language, 25 Guineas.
Entrance 1 Guinea.
Parlour Boarders 33 Guineas per annum.
Washing 15s per quarter.
Tea breakfast ditto 10s. 6d.
Dancing, Music, Drawing, etc., by approved Masters.
N.B. As the French Tongue is spoken in the family, Young Ladies will have many advantages for acquaintance and fluency in the use of that Language, particularly
those who enter as Parlour Boarders."
Notices of the school continued to appear in the Manchester press until 1816. By then it seems probably that the dyeing business in the hands of Louis Bartholomew
was sufficiently prosperous to release his sisters from the necessity of running a school.
Louis Bartholomew was, by all accounts, both a capable dyer and a successful man of business. From 1811 until about the time of his death in 1865 the Delaunay
works ran without any known reverses, and he was regarded as an exceptionally good employer. "No old servant at the works" it was stated(28) "was ever
discharged, even when incapacitated, and the place was over-run with pensioners receiving full wages as long as they lived". His brother George, of whom almost
nothing is known, became a partner on coming of age in 1816, though he died while still in his thirties. Louis lived in some style, though without ostentation, in Hulton
House(29)—about where Hexagon House stands now—with his unmarried sister Dorothy acting as housekeeper. His brother Michael and sister Ulalea (Eulalie),
neither of whom married, lived in a smaller establishment, Ivy House, by the banks of the Irk. It was Louis who enlarged the works to include, besides
dyehouses, a printworks, an indigo mill, a gas works (providing their own lighting), counting house and offices. He also laid out the coach road to Hulton House that
became the present-day Delaunays Road, and built in 1830 the well-known "square chimney", a local landmark demolished in 1960. As an overseer of the poor, some
of the surviving Blackley rate books bear his bold flowing signature. The family never broke their links with France. A letter of 1843, from Louis Delaunay to his son
Charles, shows that some of his children were sent to Rouen for their education, and that he was on terms of friendship with several Rouen dyers. Michael Delaunay
probably died in France, though he is interred in the family vault in St. Peter's churchyard in Blackley.
After Louis Delaunay's death in 1865, Hulton House and the works were purchased by a representative of another wave of continental immigrants—Ivan Levinstein
and his family from Berlin, who brought with them the new technology of synthetic dyestuffs, and opened a new chapter in the history of dyestuffs in Blackley.
Notes and References
(1) Wilfrid Cliffe, a chemist in ICI Dyestuffs Division at Blackley, died suddenly in 1964, leaving a quantity of notes on the
history of dyes and dyeing in Manchester, his spare-time interest for many years. Of this material, only that relating to
Turkey Red was sufficiently complete to be published; by kind permission of Mrs. Cliffe, the notes were reduced to
narrative form by Mr. D. Mason, formerly librarian of Dyestuffs Division. The present paper is an abridged and edited
version of this narrative, by Dr. W. V. Farrar, Department of History of Science and Technology, UMIST.
(2) Note for non-Mancunians: pronounced, as it used often to be spelt, Blakeley.
(3) This was correct when Mr. Cliffe compiled his notes: Hulton Brow has now disappeared under new buildings.
(4) WILSON, J., On light and colours, and what colouring matters are that dye cotton and linen (Manchester, 1786). An account
of Wilson's process is given by T. HENRY, Man. Mems., 3, 343 (1790).
(5) DOSSIE, R. (1768), quoted by C. BOLTON, Dyer and Textile Printer, 77, 602 (1937).
(6) For the claims sometimes made on behalf of Simon Spurritt of Isleworth and Dr. Berkenhout (a German or Dutchman), see
Bolton, ref. 5.
(7) Manchester Mercury, 15th March 1791. There are several references to "our Greek" in letters written by James Watt
junior, who was at that time working for Taylor and Maxwell (Boulton-Watt correspondence, Birmingham Public Library).
(8) On the introduction of Turkey Red dyeing into France, see H. WESCHER, Ciba Review, no. 135, 21 (1959).
(9) SEE, H., "The Normandy Chamber of Commerce and the Commercial Treaty of 1786", Econ. Hist. Rev., 2, 308 (1929-30).
(10) His personal success did not last long. Macintosh wrote to his father on 18th January 1787: "Papillon has now left us entirely,
we could not manage this unhappy temper ... we paid him his salary up to October, so as to be quite clear of him". Some
other ventures also apparently failed, and his career ends in obscurity. See C. A. PEEL, J. Soc. Dyers Col., 68, 496 (1952).
(11) This account is derived from the Journals of the House of Commons, vols. 41 and 42.
(12) This definite statement about dyeing piece goods is quite important, since it is often stated that the first successful
Turkey Red piece-dyer was Daniel Koechlin of Mulhouse in 1810 (probably following E. BAINES, History of the cotton
manufacture (London, 1835), p. 276).
(13) Ref. 11 records that the money had been paid by 19th April 1787.
(14) Manchester Mercury, 24th April 1787.
(15) Manchester Mercury, 25th December 1787.
(16) Manchester Mercury, 28th October 1788; repeated on 4th and 11th November.
(17) Journal of the House of Commons, vol. 53.
(18) Manchester Mercury, 31st July 1804.
(19) FRED L. LAVARE, Mane/tester City News, 4th August 1900.
(20) Manchester Mercury, 24th June 1788, and following two issues.
(21) Manchester Mercury, 15th December 1789. According to directory entries, Payant continued as a teacher until 1794.
But he was clearly a man of many parts, for he appears in later entries as manufacturer, twist merchant, commission
agent, foreign merchant, calico printer, and wine merchant. He married a sister of Peter Clare, the Quaker, John Dalton's
(22) Manchester Mercury, 20th April 1790.
(23) Manchester Mercury, 25th March 1794.
(24) Manchester Mercury, 27th December 1808 and 14th August 1810.
(25) In Lancashire County Record Office, Preston.
(26) Manchester Mercury, 18th December 1810. Later advertisements refer to "the Misses Delaunay", and the Will of Angel
Delaunay makes it clear that the two daughters were Dorothy and Adelaide. The school was conducted in the family home.
(27) If this statement is true, Dorothy (or Adelaide) must have been bom during a return visit of their mother to Rouen; this
is not unlikely, since the Delaunays continued to have close links with France, and it seems from the Will that Angel's
wife held property there.
(28) "R.H.G.", Manchester City News, llth August 1900.
(29) Hulton House must have been acquired as the family home some time between the forced sale of Thames House in 1808
and the making of Angel's Will in 1810. It was demolished about 1920 to make way for administrative buildings.
ColorantsHistory.Org is grateful to Deborah Howcraft, Carole Paterson and Anthony S. Travis for contributing valuable information and images for this history.
Delaunay Dyeworks Copyright of Artist K. Littlejohn. Used with Permission.
Mr. Borelle's Ad in Manchester Mercury,
1788. Image Courtesy of Deborah Howcroft
|Delaunay and Payant Ad in Manchester Mercury, 1788
Image Courtesy of Deborah Howcroft
19th Century antique French fabric ca. 1815-1830. This piece was creating using a hand block printing technique. The
design is a Indienne Paisley. The dyestuffs used were madder or Adrianople red and most likely woad for the blue.
Although it is uncertain if this piece was made at the Delaunay`s Dyeworks, it is a good representation of the colour
Turkey Red. Image and Caption Courtesy of Deborah Howcroft.