"Spies and Dyes"
by Robert J. Baptista, updated March 4, 2010
Industrial intelligence gathering was as important in World War I as military intelligence.  This was the first high tech war involving airplanes, submarines,
motorized artillery and chemical warfare agents in battle.  The secrets of the underlying technologies for these systems could be used by the Allies or the
Germans to gain military and economic advantages.  Spying took place on both sides of the Atlantic, with industrial chemists having a key role in the
acquisition of highly classified information regarding dyes, high explosives, poison gases and synthetic rubber, all critical to waging war.  Several of these
escapades are discussed here.

I) Du Pont Snares German Dye Technology

During the World War I dye famine, American companies struggled to produce synthetic dyes formerly imported from Germany.  There were few American
chemists with the requisite know-how of dye-making and this presented a major technology barrier.  Some emerging companies, such as the
Beckers
Aniline & Chemical Co. of Brooklyn, had the advantage of an experienced founder like William G. Beckers.  Beckers was a native German with a PhD in
chemistry and a background in the dye industry.  He emigrated to the U.S. and began producing a range of dyes in 1912.  The company flourished and in
1917 was merged into the
National Aniline & Chemical Company of Buffalo, the early leader of the domestic dye industry.

Other companies recruited Swiss chemists during the war, since Switzerland was the second leading exporter of dyes after Germany. The
Standard Aniline
Products Co., of Wappingers Falls, New York, hired Dr. Paul Strubin as plant manager in 1916 and Dr. Edwin A. Meier as manufacturing supervisor in 1917.  
These men were instrumental in starting production of chemical intermediates and sulfur dyes. When the business was subsequently absorbed by the
National Aniline & Chemical Co., Strubin and Meier transferred to the new Grasselli Chemical Co. dye works in Linden, New Jersey.  This facility would
become the
General Aniline Works of I.G. Farben in 1928.

The demand for domestic dyes was insatiable during the war and selling prices rose spectacularly.  In 1914 sulfur black, one of the largest volume dyes
used in the textile industry, sold for $0.20 per pound.  During 1915 the price soared to $2.75-3.00 per pound.  Dye-making suddenly became one of the most
profitable industries in the U.S., attracting investment by both small and large firms.  

Du Pont, which was primarily a gunpowder manufacturer before the war, decided to throw its hat into the ring.  In 1917 a multi-million dollar plant was
constructed in Deepwater, New Jersey.  The facility, which stretched along the Delaware River, became known as the Chambers Works.  The first
production target was sulfur black because of the huge market for this cotton dye and the assumption that it was simple to manufacture.  But the first
batches were either off-shade or could not even be applied to cotton.

Dr. Elmer K. Bolton, director of Du Pont’s research laboratory, was summoned to Chambers Works to solve the sulfur black production problems.  But he
was just as mystified as the other American chemists and engineers.  The German patents, which were confiscated by the U.S. government during the war,
could not be duplicated by Du Pont’s chemists.  The patents were written in a purposely vague manner with key information omitted.  It was apparent that
the patents could only be worked by a chemist “skilled in the art”, meaning an experienced German chemist. For many years this obfuscation helped
Germany dominate the global dye market and limited U.S. attempts to enter the field.

In 1920 Du Pont embarked upon a cloak and dagger mission to obtain the services of German chemists.  Dr. E.C. Kunze, a Du Pont representative in Zurich,
convinced four Bayer chemists in Leverkusen to bolt Germany for the U.S. and accept jobs at Du Pont.  They each signed five-year employment contracts
for $25,000 a year, which was a staggering sum in 1920 and equivalent to $267,000 today. The German chemists filled a trunk with process information,
equipment drawings, plant layouts and dye samples.  In December 1920 they were spirited out of Germany by Dr. Kunze.  But at a Dutch border checkpoint
the trunk was opened.  The suspicious looking contents resulted in seizure of the trunk and notification of German authorities.  The Cologne prosecutor
issued an arrest warrant for the four chemists for industrial espionage.  The charges against the chemists included “illegally appropriating valuable
recipes, formulae, etc., to which they had access by virtue of their positions of trust and confidence”

Protection of dye manufacturing secrets had led Germany to the extreme step of prohibiting the issuance of passports to German chemists.  The German
public was outraged about the incident and newspaper headlines screamed “Four Traitors”, “An American Plot Against German Dyestuff Industry”, and
“The Power of the Dollar”.

Despite the arrest warrant, two of the German chemists, Dr. Joseph Flachslaender and Dr. Otto Runge, managed to board the Dutch steamer
Ryndam on
December 31, bound for New York.  On January 3, 1921 the ship was met by Richard Sylvester, Du Pont security officer, and Dr. Bolton, who was then head
of the Organic Division.  When the two men failed to disembark, Sylvester posed as the Honorary President of the International Association of Chiefs of
Police and demanded to see the men.  The
Ryndam’s captain refused to release the passengers, mentioning the outstanding arrest warrants from
Germany.  Sylvester and Bolton called for help.  After discussions took place between Washington, DC, Wilmington, and officials at Ellis Island, Drs.
Flachslaender and Runge were released after a few days and began their new careers at Du Pont.

The remaining two chemists, Dr. Max Engelmann and Dr. Heinrich Jordan, had greater difficulty leaving Germany.  Du Pont resorted to its political and
military contacts for help.  In May 1921 Major General Henry T. Allen, commanding general of U.S. forces in Germany, ordered Captain H.E. Osann, chief of
the U.S. Military Secret Police in Coblenz, along with a company of soldiers, to escort Dr. Engelmann and Dr. and Mrs. Jordan from unoccupied Germany to
the American sector. This mission was successful  even though the chemists were under surveillance by the German police.  They boarded the U.S. Army
transport
Somme, arriving in Hoboken, New Jersey on July 5, 1921.

Du Pont now had four talented German dye chemists working in the Jackson Research Laboratory in Deepwater, New Jersey.  The company would soon
become the leader in the U.S. dye market, a position it held until it exited the business in 1980.


























II)  German Spies and Saboteurs in the United States

Anti-German hysteria and tales of German conspiracies, real and imagined, were prevalent in America during World War I.
























After the U.S. declared war on Germany in 1917, the assets of the Bayer Company were seized as enemy property, including the
Rensselaer, New York
plant which manufactured dyes and aspirin, the offices and warehouses, and patent rights. In late 1917 Federal Judge A. Mitchell Palmer, the Alien
Property Custodian, announced his intention to ‘thoroughly Americanize’ the company and named four new members to the board of directors.  

Palmer claimed to have uncovered a conspiracy involving members of the previous management still on the board who violated the Trading with the
Enemy Act.  In August 1918 five company officials were arrested and charged with diverting profits to a dummy corporation in Rhode Island and thence to
Germany.  The purpose was to enable Bayer to reestablish its dyes and pharmaceuticals business in the United States when the war ended. The men
arrested were Herman C. A. Seebohm, director and secretary; Dr. Robert J. Pabst, manager of sales; A. Reiser, manager of the dummy corporation Williams
& Crowell Color Company of Providence, Rhode Island; Dr. Albert Segin, head of pharmaceuticals; and Dr. Rudolph Hutz, a former company director and
manager of the Boston sales office.  

At the time Hutz was staying at his summer home on Pine Island, Lake Winnipesaukee, New Hampshire.  Secret Service agents found a boat and rowed out
to the island to make his arrest at 1:30 AM.  They found him sleeping in bed and immediately handcuffed him.  He had four medal decorations from the
German Government in his possession, along with a large photograph of the German Emperor.  Hutz was charged with violation of the Trading with the
Enemy Act and espionage and was interned first at Ellis Island and then at the prison camp in Fort Oglethorpe, Georgia.  Dr. Arthur Franz Felix Mothwurf,
chief chemist and assistant manager of the Bayer Rensselaer plant, was also arrested for his alleged hiding of an ownership position in the Williams &
Crowell Color company.  These dramatic arrests were followed by the firing of any Rensselaer plant employee suspected of sympathizing with Germany.
Rumors were spread that aspirin was formulated to cause flu outbreaks.  Bayer tried to counter the negative publicity with the ad shown below:




















This situation accelerated efforts by the government to sell the seized German company to an American firm.  The Alien Property Custodian sold the
business in 1918 to Sterling Products Inc., a drug manufacturer of Wheeling, West Virginia.  Sterling Products immediately sold the dye-making portion of
the company and plant to the
Grasselli Chemical Company of Cleveland, Ohio.

In 1919 Francis P. Garvan, then Alien Property Custodian, announced details of the German spy system in the U.S. during the war.  The address took place
at the annual banquet of the National Cotton Manufacturers.  Garvan reported that the Hamburg-American and North German Lloyd shipping lines
collected information about U.S. ship movements and cargo which were reported to Germany.

Garvan believed the emerging American dye industry was the principal target of the espionage.  Thirty German chemists were being interned at the time.
Garvan regarded Dr. Hugo Schweitzer, the president of the Bayer Company, as a master spy and propagandist leading a group of German agents who
monitored and reported details of American business life in daily coded messages to Berlin.  Garvan said Schweitzer was given the secret service number
963,192,637 by the Imperial Minister of War, emigrated to the U.S. to become a citizen, and eventually was named head of the Bayer Company.  .  

Schweitzer had employed Walter Scheele in the New Jersey Agricultural Chemical Company of Bogota, New Jersey, where he invented mustard gas in
1913.  Scheele transmitted the formula through Capt. Von Papen, the military attaché in Washington,  to Germany as soon as the war broke out.  Garvan
said “This is the mustard gas which laid low your brothers on the plains of France.”

Garvan revealed details of an elaborate German scheme to divert a key raw material away from munitions production in the U.S.  In 1915 Thomas A. Edison
invented a process to synthesize phenol, the starting material for picric acid which was used as a high explosive in artillery shells.  The American Oil and
Supply Company of Newark, New Jersey was the sales agent for phenol, which was in very tight supply.  Schweitzer wanted to control this supply and
contracted with the company on June 22, 1915 to purchase 6,000 pounds of phenol daily until the end of 1915, and 40,000 pounds daily in the first quarter
of 1916.  The price was almost double the normal market price.  Schweitzer put up $100,000 in cash and a $25,000 surety bond to guarantee fulfillment of
the contract.  Schweitzer had a total of $1.5 million at his disposal, given to him by Dr. Heinrich F. Albert, commercial attaché at the German embassy in
Washington.

In order to disguise doing business in his own name, Schweitzer formed the Chemical Exchange Association to purchase the phenol and deliver it to the
Heyden Chemical Works where it was converted to salicyclic acid for pharmaceutical products. Heyden Chemical Works had a large plant in Garfield, New
Jersey and an office in New York, which were seized in July 1918 by the Alien Property Custodian as enemy property.  The German ownership of Heyden
Chemical had been concealed by company officials.

In praising Schweitzer’s development of this scheme, Albert is quoted by Garvan as saying “Now one should picture to himself what a military coup would
be accomplished by an army leader if he should succeed in destroying three railroad trains of forty cars, containing 4,500,000 pounds of explosives.”  
Albert and von Papen were deported to Germany in 1915.  Schweitzer died suddenly in November 1917.

German-born Louis Hihn was head chemist of the Martin Dyeing and Finishing Company of Bridgeton, New Jersey for five years when he was arrested in
July 1917.  He was charged with stealing valuable formulas and dye samples from the company, a large manufacturer of khaki and other cloths used for
military uniforms and tents.   His subordinates knew him as "the silent chemist".  The police said Hihn was preparing to flee to Mexico with the dyes and
formulas and was ready to withdraw $900 from his savings bank.  

The proliferation of chemical plants and munitions works in New Jersey made it an attractive target for German saboteurs.  In July 1918 two Germans were
discovered, by Department of Justice agents, planting a bomb at a munitions factory in Irvington, New Jersey.  They were Frederick W. Bischoff, a dentist
and a chemist, and William Heineman.  The plot was discovered after Bischoff was observed spreading propaganda among American workers.  An
undercover private detective posed as a German sympathizer and befriended Bischoff.  As a result, Bischoff and Heineman were caught red-handed in
the dead of night laying a bomb alongside the power house of the Gould & Eberhardt Company, manufacturing machinists for the munitions industry.  The
intent was to destroy both the Gould & Eberhardt factory and the adjoining Keyport Engineering Company which made ammunition and had a powder
magazine.  The Keyport Engineering factory was the original target, but when the plotters went there the previous night, they saw that it was well-guarded
and decided to bomb the Gould & Eberhardt factory instead.

Bischoff had a dentist's office in Newark and Perth Amboy and was living at the Robert Treat Hotel in Newark at the time.  He was also a chemist and an
expert in explosives.  He admitted to building the bomb, a brass cylindrical device one foot in length.  A search of his rooms revealed plans and blueprints
of bombs in addition to coded letters from the German military.  He was sentenced to 25 years in prison for the attempted sabotage and an additional 10
years for conspiring to defame the character of returning American Red Cross nurses and soldiers.  His associate Heineman was sentenced to 15 years in
prison.

In March 1918 Wilhelm Andreae, a German connected with the A & B Export and Import Corporation of New York, was arrested on a Presidential warrant
and was interned at the Fort Oglethorpe, Georgia prison camp.  He was suspected of serving the Prussian secret service for twenty years.  He arrived in
the U.S. in 1915 at a time when the empire was allowing no one to leave except for special reasons.  He had been in Paris in 1914 and left hastily one week
before World War I broke out and was suspected of being recalled by the German military authorities.  Andreae started the A & B corporation in 1917.  He
had a brother in the German Army and another brother who was interned in England.























































Carl Feldman, president and general manager of the Berlin Aniline, Works, was seized in August 1918 as a dangerous enemy alien.  He was held at a
Massachusetts detention camp pending an examination.  Custodian of Alien Property Palmer confiscated all the stock of the company.  Oswald Kunhardt, a
local representative of the company's office in Boston, had already been arrested in July 1918, after leaving a train in Manchester, Massachusetts.  He was
interned at the East Cambridge jail.

In 1918 the Alien Property Custodian seized the Williamsburg Chemical Company of Brooklyn as enemy property and made plans for its sale.  The company
manufactured a group of basic colors including malachite green, brilliant green, methylene blue, and safranine.The government claimed that German
interests owned 56 percent of the company.   Company owners Richard G. Blumenthal and Richard Heyder were interned.   In 1927 the Calco Chemical
Company of Bound Brook, New Jersey purchased the company.  

Adolphus Henry Ney was a German chemist with a Ph.D. from the University of Zurich.  He was a descendant of Marshall Michel Ney of Napoleon's army.  
Ney came to the U.S. in 1898 and worked for the leading dyes manufacturer Schoellkopf, Hartford and Hanna of Buffalo during 1902-1905.  He later
established himself as a consultant in dyes and explosives, with an office in New York.  During World War I Ney consulted for Standard Aniline Products
(Wappinger Falls, NY), Sherwin-Williams Paint (Chicago), Holland Aniline (Holland, MI), Federal Dyestuff and Chemical (Kingsport, TN) and the Bayer Co.
(Rensselaer, NY).   After failing to register as an enemy alien, and displaying suspicious behavior while under government surveillance, he was arrested in
December 1918 and imprisoned at Ellis Island.  In March 1919 he was transferred to Fort Oglethorpe.  Ney was paroled in December 1919 and joined the
Sepoy Color Co. (Scranton, PA) which went bankrupt in 1920.















When World War I ended, there were about 2,500 civilian enemy aliens interned in the U.S.  Those regarded as the most dangerous, such as the bomb
plotters and propagandists, were deported to Germany and Austria.  Herman Seebohm, former director of the Bayer Company in the U.S., was returned to
Germany and became director of the Chemikalienwerk Griesheim GmbH of Frankfurt, a company that later became part of I.G. Farben.  Enemy aliens
accused of less serious infractions, such as transmitting business information to Germany, were generally allowed to stay in the U.S.

Dr. Arthur Mothwurf, former chief chemist of the Bayer Company Rensselaer plant, became head of research in 1921 for the Garfield Aniline Works, a small
dye producer with a plant in Passaic and a laboratory in Garfield, NJ.  He later became president of the American Bemberg Company, a rayon manufacturer
with plants in Elizabethton, TN, which was owned by a German firm.  In 1929 some 5,000 textile workers struck the plants, crippling production for six
weeks.  Mothwurf, who was openly anti-union, was fired by the board of directors in 1930.

Dr. Rudolph Hutz, a former director of the Bayer Company, became general manager of the Grasselli Chemical Company after his release from internment.  
In 1919 this firm had purchased the Rensselaer dye factory once owned by the Bayer Company.  The dyestuff business of Grasselli Chemical eventually
became known as General Aniline, whose parent company was I.G. Farben.  Hutz was vice president of General Aniline and Film Corporation when the
company was seized as enemy property in 1942.  Hutz and other German board members, regarded as sympathetic to Nazi Germany, were fired and
replaced by American directors.

III) British Manufacturers Capture German Dye Secrets

The Daily Mail of London  proudly announced this breakthrough for British manufacturers in January 1918.  Two men in the textile trade, John Leyland and
Richard Baldry, accomplished the feat.  They heard of a chemist in Switzerland who possessed the recipes for aniline dyes made by Badische (BASF).  With
the help of the British Government, Leyland and Baldry engaged F.M. Row of the Manchester School of Technology to visit Switzerland and test the
recipes, which were found to be satisfactory.  The Foreign Office even dispatched a Consular officer to witness and certify the experiments.

Leyland reported that their agent was followed by German agents on each trip to Switzerland.  His baggage was stolen and he was drugged and thrown
into a gutter.  Once he was followed all the way to Harve, where he alerted the French authorities who captured two German agents.  The dye samples and
recipes were finally brought to England.

Leyland and Baldry refused commercial offers to purchase the secrets and intended to sell the information to the British Government which had
established British Dyes Ltd. in Huddersfield in 1918.  The goal was to alleviate the dye famine in England, which had impaired the textile industry whose
annual sales were £200,000,000.

IV) The Mysterious Case of Guido Meisel

Guido Meisel was a German born chemist who emigrated to the United States in the late 1800s.  In 1902 he married Marion Barnes of Atlanta, who had
studied music in Germany 1895-1900.  In 1905 he established with two partners the Southern Graphite Company, which had capital of $50,000 and mined
graphite deposits in Alabama and North Carolina.  In World War I, Meisel joined the Atlantic Dyestuff Company, headquartered in Boston, with a
manufacturing plant in Newington, New Hampshire, near Portsmouth.  Atlantic Dyestuff was one of the many small firms established in the U.S. during the
World War I dye famine.  It was initially a very successful supplier of sulfur dyes and other colors for cotton and wool fabrics.  The Atlantic sulfur black was
highly regarded for its quality.  Meisel became a naturalized citizen in 1920.

In the early 1920s, however, the business began to erode.  Two vice presidents and three chemists left for positions in other chemical companies.  Larger
scale dye producers, with broader dye ranges and lower manufacturing costs, took sales away from Atlantic Dyestuff.  The company lacked the know-how
to produce vat dyes, which were discovered in Germany in 1901 and had superior fastness properties compared to sulfur dyes.  By 1925 the company was
in bankruptcy proceedings with $50,000 in claims from creditors.  The company was reorganized as the Portsmouth Dye and Chemical Company, which
apparently tried to enter the emerging rubber chemicals market.  The company held several U.S. patents in this field by 1927, so it had some expertise of
its own.

In June 1927 Guido Meisel was arrested and jailed in Germany on industrial espionage charges.  Curiously, most newspaper reports and the
American
Dyestuff Reporter
 did not name the company he represented.  But one report indicated he was director of the “Portsmouth, New Hampshire Dye and
Chemical Company.”  Another report said he was a representative of the “Portsmouth Dye and Chemical Company”.    A third news story reported Meisel
“was charged with trying to penetrate dye secrets in behalf of American chemical interests”.  The German authorities also said Meisel was interested in
discovering formulas for the treatment of rubber, a field in which Germany was conducting much research at the time.  They claimed he advertised in the
Chemische Zeitung for "A chemist experienced in producing and utilising modern accelerators."

Meisel had been traveling in Europe, apparently trying to recruit a skilled chemist to work for his firm.  He was preparing to leave Cherbourg, France for
the U.S. when he received a telegram suggesting a conference with a man who was willing to accept the position.  When Meisel showed up for the
meeting with the German chemist in Dusseldorf, he was immediately taken into custody.  Meisel had been duped by the head of the German dye trust's
investigation department,  who answered his ad under an assumed name.  He was charged with violating the German law which prohibits the hiring of an
employee already under contract.  

Germany held Meisel virtually incommunicado and did not publicize the arrest until November 1927.  Bail was denied and the 52 year old chemist suffered
serious health problems while he languished in jail.  His wife was allowed to visit him only once a week and they had to converse in German with a prison
guard present. His friends charged that he was being persecuted by business rivals who plotted his arrest.  The American Embassy in Berlin investigated
the allegations made against Meisel but did not interfere with the due process of German law.

The jury trial finally took place in February 1928.  The trial was held in secret because of the fear that German dye know-how would be made public.  After
several days of proceedings, Meisel was convicted of commercial espionage and sentenced to a year in prison and a fine of 5,000 marks (equivalent to
$1,250 at the time).  He was also sentenced to pay 2,000 marks indemnification to each of the complaining firms:  I.G. Farben, Leopold Cassella & Co., and
Kalle & Co.  The Court declared that Meisel had been conducting industrial espionage periodically since 1920, naming leading German chemical plants as
the victims. (Ellis Island records indicate Meisel travelled to Europe in 1922 and 1923).  He was charged with having negotiations with German
confederates in Heidelberg, Mannheim, and Switzerland.  The Court said Meisel was guilty of “having through unscrupulous methods injured the German
state and one of its most vital industries, which is indissolubly linked up with the nation’s welfare.”  The German chemists Paul Schmidtnaegel and Dr.
Rudolf Reiss, co-defendants of Meisel, were sentenced respectively to five and two months’ imprisonment and given nominal fines.

Meisel was released on bail of 11,000 marks and ordered to remain in Germany.  He was finally freed in May 1928 after paying the 5,000 marks fine.  He and
his wife Marion quickly returned to the U.S., settling on a farm in Poughkeepsie, New York.  By 1930, his former employer, the Portsmouth Dye and
Chemical Company, was out of business.   It is not known if Meisel worked again in the chemical industry.  His wife opened a restaurant in Poughkeepsie
and later operated a photography studio in New York City.

Meisel’s treatment in Germany was exceptionally harsh considering that he actually never hired a German chemist.  His punishment most likely
represented retribution by the German dye industry for the earlier defection of four chemists to Du Pont.  The German dye trust had sent a clear message
to the world of how seriously they guarded trade secrets.

V) I.G. Farben Thwarts Spying

Stolen dye manufacturing know-how from German plants brought high prices.  In August 1927 three employees of the Hoechst plant in Frankfurt were
caught trying to carry trade secrets to England in their socks.  A contract found on the men showed the purchase price of the information was over
$200,000.  The contract provided for air passage to England, steady employment and a share of the profits.

In September 1928 I.G. Farben discovered a well organized spy ring operating in its Leverkusen chemical works.  Three chemists were arrested.  The
espionage system was uncovered by the intelligence department of I.G. Farben which had placed agents in its plants throughout Germany.

The arrested men said that almost every I.G. plant employed several Germans who were spying for the French secret service.  But
I.G. Farben reported that only unimportant formulas for aniline dyes made their way to France.  There was evidence that information relating to new
processes, such as coal liquefaction and Indanthrene dye manufacture, was actively being sought by the spy ring.  
I.G. Farben expressed confidence in their basic approach to prevent the theft of industrial secrets.  Information was tightly  compartmentalized and no
one employee had access to complete information regarding any one process which was not public property.



























VI) Conclusion
The daring exploits of chemists, dye manufacturing companies,  and governments on both sides of World War I demonstrated the importance of chemical
industry trade secrets to the outcome of the war.  But also at stake for the victor was the domination of the global economy by superior technology.   The
war ended the German monopoly of the dye industry, with the U.S. emerging as the world leader.  The secrets learned from unraveling the chemistry of
synthetic dyes led to new developments in pharmaceuticals, fibers, rubber, plastics and many other products.  The U.S. economy is still the world's largest
based on continuing advances in research and technology.

References:

1) “Would Arrest Dye Experts”, Fort Wayne Journal-Gazette (Fort Wayne, IN), February 21, 1921
2) “German Dye Tricks Baffle Americans”, Ogden Standard-Examiner (Ogden City, UT), February 22, 1921
3) Joseph Borkin,
The Crime and Punishment of  I.G. Farben, Barnes & Noble, New York, 1978, pp. 38-40
4) P.J. Wingate,
The Colorful Du Pont Company, Serendipity Press, Wilmington, 1982
5) Du Pont web site:  http://www2.dupont.com/Our_Company/en_US/assets/downloads/glance/dupont_factoids.pdf, accessed September 1, 2006
6) Marion Barnes Meisel Papers, 1895-1960:  Biographical Note at the website:
http://asteria.fivecolleges.edu/findaids/sophiasmith/mnsss272_bioghist.html, accessed September 1, 2006
7) "Stolen Formulas",
American Dyestuff Reporter, Vol. 16, No. 14, August  22, 1927, p. 537
8)  “American Held by Teuts Seeks Intervention”, Havre (Montana) Daily News Promoter, November 29, 1927
9) "Imprisoned by Germans as Spy", Portsmouth Herald and Times, November 29, 1927
10)  “American Chemist Declared Victim of Conspiracy”, Modesto (California) News-Herald, November 30, 1927.
11)  “Protest to Reich on Jailed American”, New York Times, November 30, 1927
12) “American Tried as Spy in Germany”, Elyria (Ohio) Chronicle Telegram, February 17, 1928
13) “Meisel Sentenced in Germany as Spy”, New York Times, February 19, 1928
14) "On Trial for Spying in German Dye Factories",
American Dyestuff Reporter, Vol. 17, No. 3, February 20, 1928, p. 136
15) “Meisel Freed in Germany”, New York Times, May 23, 1928
16) "Still Stealing Dye Formulas",
American Dyestuff Reporter, Vol. 17, No. 16, September 17, 1928, p. 613
17) Robert J. Baptista and Anthony S. Travis, "I. G. Farben in America: The Technologies of General Aniline & Film"
History and Technology , Vol. 22, No. 2,
June 2006, p. 191
18) "Had Medals From Kaiser", New York Times, August 23, 1918
19) "Dr. Mothwurf Arrested", New York Times, August 24, 1918
20) "Added Light Shed On German Spy System Here During The War", Syracuse (NY) Herald, April 27, 1919
21) "Deadly Mustard Gas Fumes Used To Poison Americans Invented by German In U.S.", Clearfield (PA) Progress, April 28, 1919
22) "Kept Carbolic Acid From Allies", Fresno (CA) Morning Republican, October 19, 1918
23) "Chemical Man Ordered Interned as Veteran Spy",
American Dyestuff Reporter, Vol. 2, No. 7, March 18, 1918, pp. 9-10
24) "Carl Feldman",
American Dyestuff Reporter, Vol. 3, No. 8, August 19, 1918, p. 17
25) "Berlin Aniline Dye Co. Representative Interned", A
merican Dyestuff Reporter, Vol. 3, No. 5, July 25,1918, p. 7
26) "Elated at Capture of Dye Secrets", New York Times, January 11, 1918
27) "6 German Enemy Aliens Are Interned"", Lowell Sun, November 9, 1918
28) "Accused of Theft of Dyes", New York Times, July 7, 1917
29) "Adolphus Henry Ney", RootsWeb, http://searches2.rootsweb.com/th/read/NEY/2007-08/1186053937, accessed July 13, 2008
30) "Caught in Attempt to Blow Up Plant", New York Times, July 28, 1918
31) "Germans in Solitary Cells", New York Times, July 29, 1918
32) "Private Detective Found Bomb Plot", New York Times, July 30, 1918
33) "25-Year Sentence for Dentist Bomber", New York Tribune October 5, 1918
34) "Seven Germans Interned", New York Times, March 14, 1919
35) "Interned Aliens Face Deportation", New York Times, December 31, 1918
36) "Shall We Deport the Interned Aliens", New York Times, March 2, 1919
39) "Deport the Alien Enemies", New York Times, July 25, 1919
40) "Damn Union", Time, April 29, 1929
41) "Happier Valley", Time, June 3, 1929
42) "Charles Wolff Succeeds Mothwurf", New York Times, February 1, 1930
43) Robert J. Baptista and Anthony S. Travis, "I.G. Farben in America: The Technologies of General Aniline & Film", History and Technology, Vol. 22, No. 2,
June 2006, pp. 187-224.  
Click here for an unabridged version of this article.
Spies and Dyes
ColorantsHistory.Org
German Postcard, ca. 1922, Promoting Indanthrene Dyes.  
The Excellent Fastness Properties of the Dyes Resulted in
Industrial Spies Trying to Obtain the Know-How.  Click to Enlarge.
Jackson Research Laboratory at Du Pont Dye Works, Deepwater, NJ, 1922
Ad for Bayer Aspirin Asserts that Board
Members Are American and Assures the
Quality of the Product.  Click to Enlarge.
The Fort Wayne News and Sentinel,
September 26, 1918
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Photo:  Olean (NY) Evening Herald, March 25, 1918
Enemy Aliens in Fort Oglethorpe Prison Barracks-1917
Photo:  U.S. Marshals
U.S. Army Intelligence WW I Poster Warned
Americans About German Spies.
Photo:  Library of Congress.  Click to Enlarge.
Fort Oglethorpe Prison Camp Photo of Interned German Chemist
Adolphus H. Ney-March 19, 1919
Photo:  Fort Oglethorpe Prison Files, Courtesy of S. Motley
Ad Stresses Bayer Aspirin is
Made in U.S.  Click to Enlarge.
New York Times, 1918
Max Engelmann-Du Pont Chemist 1921-1945